Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun. Factors such as distance and climatic characteristics are important constraints.[ Mars Surface Temperature ] Earth is about 93 million miles from the Sun, while Mars is about 142 million miles away, and therefore receives less heat. The estimated average temperature of Mars is -62°C (-81°F).
It takes the planet 687 days to complete one orbit around the Sun, which means that the seasons on Mars are almost twice as long as the seasons on Earth. The atmosphere of Mars is also fragile and consists primarily of (95%) CO2. For these reasons, Mars is too cold for humans to establish a permanent settlement.
Mars Surface Temperature
The atmosphere of Mars is 100 times thinner than that of Earth. As a result, the Martian atmosphere cannot retain heat, and the average surface temperature of Mars is -62 °C (-80 °F). During the winter, temperatures at the poles drop further, reaching lows of -126 °C (-195 °F).
Near the equator of Mars, daytime temperatures can reach 21 °C (70 °F) during the summer, but can drop to -73 °C (-100 °F) at night. Frost is common on rocks during the night, but it melts and evaporates as the air warms near dawn.
Even when Mars experiences 100% humidity, conditions are similar to those of the Atacama Desert in South America. Some forms of life,(Atmospheric cycle ice and gas) such as lichens, are known to survive such harsh climates by absorbing water from humid environments, and researchers believe that various Antarctic lichens that photosynthesize at 70% humidity may be responsible for conditions on Mars. may be able to cope.
Like Earth, Mars experiences four seasons, as both planets tilt on their axis at the same rate. However, because of the planet’s eccentric orbit, the season on Mars is longer. Spring lasts seven months, fall and summer last six months, while winter lasts four months.
During the summer, the carbon dioxide ice cap in the polar regions shrinks and disappears completely, but redevelops during the winter. Researchers and astronomers believe that liquid water may be trapped beneath the carbon dioxide ice sheet.
Atmospheric Cycle Ice And Gas
The atmosphere of Mars varies greatly with the seasons. During autumn and winter, carbon dioxide (the main component of the Martian atmosphere) accumulates and freezes, particularly at the poles, removing the gas from the atmosphere and thus lowering the pressure.
On the other hand, in hot weather, the temperature rises above the melting point of carbon dioxide and the atmospheric pressure rises again. In these dynamics scientists explain, argon and nitrogen behave as expected, moving and oscillating in harmony with the presence of CO2. There is no oxygen. And it shows, as mentioned, unexpected peaks and lower levels than the applied chemistry in winter.
Mars climate change
Some researchers suspect that Mars was wet and hot in the past, with an average temperature of about 10 °C (50 °F), while others believe that the planet was as low as -12 °C (-54 °F). It could be an icy world.
Recent astronomical studies indicate that Mars may have emerged from an ice age. The icy winds and increased humidity in the polar regions indicate a rise in temperature, which astronomers believe is the key to making the planet habitable for humans.
[Mars Surface Temperature | Atmospheric cycle ice and gas]