The distance separating the Moon and the Sun is on average the same as that between the Earth and the Sun. However, the temperatures recorded on the lunar surface are very different from those we are used to on our planet. The average is around -23°C, nothing extraordinary; But the minimum and maximum temperatures are certainly extreme: it goes from -173°C to +127°C.
Changing Moon Temperature
The main reason for such temperature excursions is the absence of an atmosphere: there is no mass of hot and cold air that moves and mixes like Earth does and there is no filter for the sun’s rays that invest in our satellite.
The second reason is the absence of the vast mass of water present on Earth: as is well known, the oceans have a very significant mitigating effect on Earth’s climate.
The third and important reason is the length of the lunar day: the Moon rotates very slowly around its axis and the day lasts for two weeks, followed by two weeks of night.
So a point on the lunar surface receives solar radiation for two weeks, 24 hours a day, and then remains in complete darkness for the next two weeks.
However, it should be emphasized that the lunar temperature range is only a superficial fact. Since there is no wind, this excursion is practically zero already at a height of one meter.
Astronauts on the Moon were protected from extreme temperatures by their spacesuits. The suit consisted of several layers of insulating material covered with a highly reflective outer layer. In addition, they had built-in heaters and cooling systems.
Moon Core Temperature
The Moon has an iron-rich core with a radius of about 330 km. The temperature in the Moon’s core is likely to be between 1327°C and 1427°C. (Moon Core Temperature) The core heats the inner layer of the molten mantle, but it is not hot enough to heat the surface of the Moon. Since the lunar core is smaller than that of Earth, the Moon’s internal temperature is not as high as on Earth.
“It’s not as hot as Earth because the Moon is smaller – so it has less internal pressure,” NASA planetary scientist Rene Weber said during an online chat hosted by NASA. “Its temperature is probably lower than the temperature at the center of the Earth.”
[Moon Temperature | Changing Temperature On The Moon]