An important role is played by neuroscience or neurobiology within cognitive science. Neuroscience represents the scientific study of the nervous system. It is a field that includes anatomy, molecular biology, mathematics, medicine, pharmacology, physiology, physics, engineering, and psychology. The term neuroscience is derived from the English “neurosciences”, coined by American neurophysiologist Francis O. There is a neologism coined by Schmidt.
He argued that if a complete understanding of the complexity of the brain and mental functioning is to be achieved, all barriers between the various scientific disciplines must be overcome by pooling their resources. The first research group created took the name of the Neurosciences Research Program, and was made up of scientists from various backgrounds.
According to neuroscience, mental representations are models of neural activity and inference, or deductive reasoning, involves the application of these models to a variety of situations in order to encounter and solve them.
Neuroscience examines the development, maturation, and maintenance of the nervous system, its anatomy, its functioning, the relationships that exist between different areas of the brain, (Molecular Basis of the Brain) and manifest behavior. Neuroscience seeks to understand not only how the nervous system works under healthy conditions, but also when it does not function properly.
Decreased brain functioning has been shown through the presence of developmental, mental and neurological disorders. Neuroscience also aims to conduct empirical studies to prevent the occurrence of various deficiencies and to correct the latter through a series of ad-hoc-developed rehabilitation actions.
Structure and Function of the Nervous System
From an structural point of view, neuroscientists focus on studying the lobes that make up the brain. There are three lobes: prefrontal, occipital and temporal lobes. Each of them is responsible for different functions of the brain.
In addition to the lobes, the nervous system also consists of several organs, such as the hippocampus, hypothalamus, or olfactory bulb. Some functions (such as olfactory or cognitive) require the intervention of different brain structures.
Molecular Basis of the Brain
Neurochemical and hormonal changes occur in the nervous system. These changes are integrated into the section on the molecular basis. In this way, neuroscientists can study the chemical reactions that occur in relation to motivation or in conditions of depression (depressed people usually have some sort of deficit in the chemical reactions that affect neurotransmitters).
Neuroscience is a phenomenon that man has known and acquired since time immemorial, albeit in apparently far more uncertain ways. Neuroscience has made many advances in the modern era and has allowed the treatment of diseases that were previously impossible to make a real impact on the quality of life of patients suffering from it, for example the cases of multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s disease in and many others that are related to the central nervous system of humans.
Study in Neuroscience
Some mental disorders are only understood by analyzing the structures and neurochemical activity of the brain. In the case of Alzheimer’s disease, there is a deficiency of acetylcholine. Many chemical changes occur in schizophrenia and the most important are those related to dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin, chemicals that facilitate neuronal connections.
[Neuroscience Definition | Molecular Basis of the Brain]