Sun Surface Temperature | Photosphere and Chromosphere


The Sun is the sphere at the base of the Solar System, composed of plasma and gas. About 70% of the gas is hydrogen, followed by helium. (Sun Surface Temperature) The sun is the most important source of energy for all living organisms on earth. It accounts for 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System. It is the brightest cosmic body seen in Earth’s sky, and the temperature of the Sun varies greatly from the surface of the star to the core.


Sun Surface Temperature

The average temperature at the surface of the Sun is about 10,000 Fahrenheit (5,600 Celsius).


Photosphere and Chromosphere

The photosphere represents the bright surface of the Sun and has a temperature of about 5600°C. Here solar radiation is visible in the form of light. Sunspots on the photosphere are darker and cooler regions than the surrounding regions. In the center of large sunspots, the temperature can drop to 4000°C.
The chromosphere, the next layer of the solar atmosphere, is slightly cooler than the photosphere, with a temperature of about 4300°C. Chromosphere, a name given by the National Solar Observatory (NSO), literally means field of colour. However, the visible light of the chromosphere is much dimmer than that of the photosphere.
Only during a total solar eclipse, when the Moon covers the photosphere, is it possible to see the chromosphere around the Sun as a reddish outline. The red color of the chromosphere is due to the presence of hydrogen in large quantities.
Core of The Sun
The temperature in the Sun’s corona rises dramatically; This too can only be seen during an eclipse as plasma flows out of the star. Despite being an outer layer, the corona can reach a temperature surprisingly high compared to the body of the Sun. In fact, the temperature here can range from a million degrees to a peak of 10 million. These are stunning figures from NASA’s Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO).
Thanks to this observatory, we also know that when the corona cools, losing heat and radiation, its material is blown outward in the form of the solar wind, which sometimes crosses Earth. This has given rise to a new concept of the Solar System as an extension of the Sun’s atmosphere, which is a magnetically active star.
Facts About The Sun
  1. The temperature at the center of the Sun reaches 15 million degrees Celsius.
  2. All the colors in the Sun are mixed together, so it appears white to our eyes.
  3. The Sun is composed mostly of hydrogen (70%) and helium (28%). 
  4. The Sun is a main sequence G2V star (or yellow dwarf).
  5. The sun was born about 4.6 billion years ago.
  6. The sun has enough nuclear fuel to stay much as it is now for another 5 billion years.
  7. The Sun is one of over 100 billion stars in the Milky Way. 
  8. The sun’s magnetic field is typically only about twice as strong as Earth’s magnetic field.


[Sun Surface Temperature | Photosphere and Chromosphere]


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