The Forms of Energy
Although there are many types of energy, scientists can group them into two main categories: kinetic energy and potential energy. Here’s a look at the forms of energy with examples of each type.
1. Kinetic Energy
The most Popular example of the mutual change of potential energy and kinetic energy is the simple pendulum. When we pull the bob of the pendulum to one side, the ball gets slightly raised from its normal position and potential energy comes in. When we release the ball, the ball starts swinging here and there. When the ball comes to its normal position, only kinetic energy remains in it.
Due to the momentum, the ball moves to the other side and the kinetic energy is again converted into potential energy. Ordinarily, by doing work against the friction of air, the energy of the ball decreases and its motion stops after some time. If there is no force of friction, the pendulum will continue to move for eternity.
The general formula for kinetic energy for a moving mass: KE = 1/2 mV 2
KE – kinetic energy, M – mass, V – velocity. The specific unit of kinetic energy is the joule.
2. Potential Energy
The work that is done to lift a body of one kilogram weight one meter high against the attraction of the earth is called kilogram-meter and it is equal to about 981 joules. If we take a string and put it on a pulley and tie a mass of about one kilogram at both its ends and leave them in such a condition that they are not at the same height and let the high body come down very slowly, then we We will see that it will lift a one kilogram body one meter high.
The lesser the friction in the pulley, the greater the weight of the second body can be kept equal to the weight of the first body. This means that if we move a body higher than the earth. If a body of one kilogram is raised 5 meters high, then it gets the ability to do 5 kilogram-meter work, and its energy increases in the same amount as compared to before.
This energy is due to the relative position of the earth and the body and is actually the energy of the system formed by the earth and the body. That is why it is called potential energy. Whenever there is a difference in the mutual distance of a community of objects or in the natural positions of different parts of the same body, there is also a difference in the potential energy.
By pressing the spring or bending the bow, they get potential energy. If water is collected at a higher height by tying dams in rivers, then potential energy comes in this water.
One of the most common potential energy equations that can be used to determine the energy of an object relative to its height above the base is: PE = mgh
PE- potential energy, m – mass, g – gravitational acceleration, h – height. A common unit of potential energy is the joule (J). Since potential energy refers to the position of an object, it can be negative. It is positive or negative depending on whether it is system-wide or system-wide.
Other types of Energy
While classical mechanics classifies all energy as kinetic or potential, there are other forms of energy.
- Gravitational energy:- energy produced by the attraction of two masses to each other.
- Electric energy:- the energy of a stationary or moving electric charge.
- Magnetic energy:- energy from the attraction of opposite magnetic fields, the repulsion of equal fields, or a coupled electric field.
- Nuclear energy:- is the energy of the strong interaction that binds protons and neutrons in an atomic nucleus.
- Thermal energy:- also called heat, is energy that can be measured in terms of temperature. It shows the kinetic energy of atoms and molecules.
- Chemical Energy:- The energy contained in the chemical bonds between atoms and a molecule.
- Mechanical energy:- the sum of kinetic and potential energy.
- Radiant energy:- the energy of electromagnetic radiation, including visible light and X-rays (for example).