Gallium is a metal, and chemically an element, it is classified as an Other Metal. The density of gallium metal is 5.91 grams per cubic centimeter. Its atomic weight is 69.723 AMU, atomic number 31 and symbol Ga. Its atom has 31 electrons, 31 protons, 39 neutrons and 4 energy levels.
In the Periodic Table, Gallium is located in Group 13, Period 4 and Block P. Gallium is found in the solid state at normal temperature (20 °C). Gallium has a melting point of 29.76 °C (85.57 °F) and its boiling point of 2204 °C (3999 °F), above which gallium is found in the gas state.
Melting Point of Gallium
Gallium has a melting point of 29.76 °C (85.57 °F)
Interesting information about Gallium
Gallium is the 35th most abundant element in the Earth’s crust. Gallium is found mainly with ores of zinc, aluminum and copper. Gallium is not toxic, the Gallium Neutrino Observatory in Italy has collected large amounts of gallium trichloride (GaCl3) to study particles called neutrinos produced during the nuclear fusion process inside the Sun.
Gallium is found in small amounts in our body, with approximately 0.7 milligrams of gallium present in an adult’s body. Compounds of gallium can be harmful to health, causing a red rash on the skin and decreased production of red blood cells.
Uses of Gallium Metal
- Gallium is used in high speed semiconductors, is an important component of many semiconductors, and is a substitute for silicon in the electronics industry.
- Gallium is used as a light emitting diode in red and blue LEDs.
- Gallium has the highest liquid limit of all metals, and has a high boiling point, so it is used in thermometers that measure high temperatures.
- Gallium is used to make solar cells that are used in spacecraft and satellites.
- Gallium nitride is also a semiconductor, it is used in computers, mobile phones, Blu-ray technology, green and blue LEDs, and pressure sensor switches.
- Gallium is used to make highly reflective surfaces on porcelain and glass.
- Gallium is used to make low melting alloys.
- Gallium alloys are used to stabilize plutonium in nuclear weapons.
Physical and Chemical Properties of Gallium
Gallium Silver is a shiny white metal, Gallium is a very soft and brittle metal, which breaks easily, and can be cut even with a simple knife. Gallium has a melting point of 29.76°C, due to which it melts easily even with the heat of a human hand. Gallium has the highest liquid limit of any other metal, only in the liquid state between the temperature range of 29.76°C to 2204°C. Gallium can be supercooled very easily.
Supercooling means cooling a substance in a liquid state to a temperature very low below its melting point without bringing it to a solid state. Gallium is a chemically reactive element, it reacts with almost all non-metals at high temperatures. Gallium reacts easily with both acids and bases. Gallium increases in volume as it cools and freezes. Gallium arsenide can generate laser light directly from electricity. Gallium readily forms alloys with most metals.
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