Definition Of Ecosystem

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Definition Of Ecosystem


Definition of Ecosystem 

In an ecosystem, living organisms are classified into producers, consumers, and decomposers, the former representing all plant life, consumers eating the organisms that eat them and each other, and the latter representing those scavengers. Transporters and bacteria that break down dead organic matter. Together, these living components are known as biological factors. 

Abiotic factors, or non-living components of an ecosystem, can be climatic, social and edaphic (influenced by soil or land type). The calorie flow or energy flow that travels through the food chain of the ecosystem is initially provided through inputs from the ecosystem itself. 

For example, the amount of sunlight available to plant life, and the nutrient level of the soil. Without abiotic factors, no ecosystem can provide for biotic factors. 

Ecosystems are constantly changing. Human threats to biodiversity include natural habitats through deforestation, pollution, disease transmission across natural borders, the introduction of non-indigenous species, and overgrazing. More natural hazards include migration of species to a particular area, a change in weather, or a deadly disease that affects only one species. 


Components Of An Ecosystem 

Components of an ecosystem What are the components of an ecosystem? is given below. 

  1. Biological component 
  2. Abiotic components

Biological components of an ecosystem 

All living beings have been kept under this, in which both animals and plants are included, they are related to each other. There are two types of abiotic components of an ecosystem. 

  • Autotrophic components:- Those organisms which make their own food are called autotrophic components like green plants make their own food (carbohydrates) by the process of photosynthesis, they are called autotrophic components and autotrophic organisms are called producers. 
  • Heterotrophicc Components:- Organisms that depend on organic substances produced by autotrophic organisms for their food are called heterotrophs, they are of the following types. 



Organisms that accept organic food and digest it inside the body and convert it into simple organic substances are called bio-eaters, they are also called consumers, they are of three types.

1. Consumers First or Herbivores :- Those animals which depend on green plants i.e. producers for their food. They are called consumers first.

2. Consumer second or non-vegetarian :- This type of consumer consumes vegetarian i.e. first consumer, they are called consumer second. They are carnivorous like foxes.

  • Third consumer or omnivorous :- Those organisms which consume second consumer are called third consumer. The first consumer is the producer and the second consumer depends on the first consumer and the third consumer, the second consumer. The above consumers are called micro consumers, apart from this there are also consumers which are also called decomposers. 
  • Decomposers :- Those organisms which decompose the dead body of organism producers and macro consumers into simple organic or inorganic substances. Inorganic substances are released into the environment by the process of decomposition and again become available to the producers and thus maintain the environment. 

Definition Of Ecosystem

Abiotic components of an ecosystem 

Non-living substances present in the environment are called abiotic components of the ecosystem. These are of three types. 

  • 1. Climatic Factors:-  The factors which are present in the environment such as air, light, temperature, rain etc.
  • 2. Organic Factors :- Proteins, carbohydrates, fats, etc., are decomposed from the body after the death of organisms.
  • 3. Inorganic Substances :- Organic substances are synthesized by inorganic substances like nitrogen, hydrogen, sulphur, carbon etc. It is first used by the producer and from here it goes to the consumer and is decomposed by the decomposers and is again released into the environment. In this way these substances pass through a cyclic path, then it is called biogeochemical cycle. 


Type Of Ecosystem 

Types of Ecosystem Ecosystems are mainly of two types.

  1. Natural
  2. Synthetic 

Natural Ecosystem  


Terrestrial Ecosystem 

Those ecosystems which are found on land are called terrestrial ecosystems such as forest ecosystems, desert and grassland ecosystems. 

Desert Ecosystem 

About 17 percent of the earth is covered by a hot desert. The environment here is special due to low rainfall and high temperature. There is a shortage of water here, due to which the vegetation here is also special and due to dryness, sand stupas are spread everywhere. The natural vegetation of the desert area is thorny shrubs, short grasses and some aridity tolerant trees.

Forest Ecosystem 

Earth is the largest planet in the solar system on which life is possible. There is an extension of forests in its wide areas. On one side there are evergreen tropical forests and on the other side there are temperate deciduous and angular forests of the border regions of cold-temperate. Forests or natural vegetation, on the one hand, control the various elements of the environment such as temperature, pressure, rainfall, humidity, soil, etc. They have their own ecosystem.

Saline aquatic ecosystem 

This is the ecosystem of freshwater space, it is divided into two parts :- a. Lotic Ecosystem: An ecosystem of waterfalls, rivers, etc. B. Lantic Ecosystem of stagnant water Ecosystem of lake pond puddle, muddy swamp etc.

Saline Ecosystem 

Ecosystem Of Ocean, Bay Etc. 


Synthetic Ecosystem 

The ecosystem which is created by man is called an artificial ecosystem. In this system, there are disturbances in energy flow planning and natural balance. Such as the ecosystem of the crop of the field, the ecosystem of the garden. 

Agricultural Area Ecosystem: In addition to the natural system, ecosystems are also created by humans. Due to the technical and scientific knowledge of man, new ecosystems have been developed by establishing harmony with the natural environment, such as the ecosystem of the agricultural sector. In this, man uses different types of chemical elements to get maximum production. 

By adding artificial fertilizers to the soil, it replenishes the mineral salts in it. With a special type of seed irrigation system and technical use, not only does it expand in the agricultural area, but also increases in production, development in innovation, and develops more by the production of new crops. 



Categories: Earth Science


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