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Function of Kidney

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Function Of Kidney, Location of Kidneys

 

Human kidneys are important for regulating fluid and electrolyte balance, blood pressure, acid and base balance, detoxifying the body, (Function Of Kidney) formation of red blood cells, and regulating bone metabolism. 

 

Kidney Anatomy 

The kidneys are two paired organs located next to the spine at the level of the lower ribs. Each kidney, depending on the height of the individual, is about 9 to 12 cm long, about 4 to 6 cm wide and about 3 to about 5 cm thick. (Location of Kidneys ) A kidney weighs about 150 grams, its surface is usually smooth and the organs are well supplied with blood. 

Function Of Kidney, Location of Kidneys

Location of Kidneys 

The kidneys are located on the eleventh and twelfth ribs on the left and right sides of the spine. The left kidney is about 1.5 cm higher than the right. In adults, these organs are eleven to twelve inches long and five to six inches wide. 

Function Of Kidney, Location of Kidneys

 

Function Of Kidney 

 

Release of Toxins 

The kidneys remove toxins from the body, such as breaking down products of B protein metabolism. Blood is filtered through tiny pores in the blood vessels of kidney cells. The pores allow only small molecules to pass through, but not even proteins or blood cells. Protein in the urine is therefore a sign of kidney disease, at least if more than 0.2 g of it is excreted per day. After filtration, the kidneys remove 99% of the water from the filtered urine in the tubules. 

In this way, the body reabsorbs 1.5 liters of originally filtered urine, along with other important soluble blood components such as sugar and salts. If the kidneys are no longer fully functioning, they may not be able to remove enough water from primarily filtered urine. Patients with kidney failure sometimes produce more urine than usual at the onset of the disease and therefore have to empty their bladder more often. 

Function Of Kidney, Location of Kidneys

Regulation of water and electrolyte balance and acid-base balance 

The kidneys control water and electrolyte balance and ensure that the body excretes or retains excess fluid or electrolytes. They adjust urine output to the amount of water you drink and thus compensate for the difference in the body’s water balance. 

If you drink more than 10-20 liters and less than 0.5 liters per day, the water balance is disturbed. The kidneys can also raise or lower blood pressure through their salt and water balance. They also control the pH value in the blood so that the blood does not become too “acidic” or “alkaline”. So the kidneys determine how many acids and bases are in the body.

Hormone Production 

In addition, the kidneys are a source of vital signaling substances: they produce, for example, erythropoietin, which stimulates the formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow. Therefore people with kidney disease often suffer from anemia and feel tired and powerless. 

In addition, certain cells in the kidneys produce an important hormone for controlling blood pressure, renin. Another hormone that is produced in the kidneys is calcitriol, the “active form” of vitamin D3. Calcitriol causes the intestines to absorb more calcium and phosphate and is also important for the immune system.

The main functions of the kidney are as follows 

  1. Regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance
  2. Regulation of blood pressure
  3. Regulation of acid and base balance
  4. Detoxification of the body
  5. Regulates the formation of red blood cells (erythrocytes)
  6. Adjustment of blood pressure through the production of hormones
  7. Regulation of bone metabolism 

 

Typical symptoms of kidney disease 

Kidney disease is dangerous because in its first stage it is not known that it is slowly getting worse, yet the body gives many such signs that it can be estimated that the kidney is not working properly. 

  • Loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting
  • Poor concentration
  • Itching
  • Increased blood pressure
  • Gray skin tone
  • Shortness of breath and water retention, especially swelling of the eyelid and lower leg

 

[Function of Kidney, Location of Kidneys, And Disease Symptom]

Categories: BIOLOGY

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