Graphene Is Carbon Material | Who invented Graphene
Graphene Is Carbon Material
Graphene is a material composed of a crystal lattice of carbon, formed by hexagons of atoms. Graphene is a lattice layer as thick as 1 atom.
Graphene is extremely thin, about 1 nanometer (a nanometer is one billionth of a meter), light, flexible and transparent. It has the strength of a diamond but can be bent flexibly. Its electrical conductivity is higher than that of silver, and its thermal conductivity is about 10 times that of copper.
Due to its high chemical resistance and heat resistance, it is gaining attention as an alternative to silicon and precious metals. Its characteristics are similar to those of “carbon nanotubes” made from the same carbon. Therefore, it is easy to use, depending on where you use the product. For example, graphene is suitable for applications such as transistors and sensors that take advantage of the thin sheet shape.
Graphene Electronic Properties
Graphene is a powerful carbon submetal made up of zero-overlap semimetal molecules. For this reason, it can conduct electricity in the best way inside itself. Carbon generally has a valency of 4, so it bonds with 4 other molecules all the time to form a zygote.
But out of the 4 electrons present in the outermost orbitals of graphene, only 3 electrons form the bond. The remaining one electron drives the rapid electricity transmission inside the graphene. Apart from this, the ‘Pi’ bond present inside graphene also greatly affects its geometry.
Being light like a photon, it can move from one place to another very fast within a short time. Graphene can conduct electricity up to 15,000 cm2.V-1.s-1, which is quite a lot.
Graphene is also called the “Ballistic Transporter” of electricity due to its ability to flow such a large amount of electricity.
Graphene Mechanical Strength
Graphene is the most powerful material in the world. The carbon bonds inside it, 0.142 nano-meter long, are the strongest bonds available on this earth. Here let me tell you even more that the Tensile Strength of Graphene is 130,000,000,000 Pascal, if we compare it with Steel then it is much more, because the Tensile Strength of Steel is only 400,000,000 Pascal.
Although graphene is the most powerful material in the world, it is a very light material. The weight of a flat sheet of graphene per square meter size is only 0.77 mg. Let me tell you here that a sheet of paper of the same size weighs 1000 times more than a sheet of graphene.
Graphene Optical Properties
The thickness of graphene is only one molecule, but it can absorb 2.3% of its luster. The only reason for this amazing quality is its unique electrical properties. For this reason the Opacity of graphene is π=2.3%.
What is the difference between graphite and graphene?
Graphene is basically a layer of graphite; A layer of sp2 bonded carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice. Graphite is naturally a very brittle or breakable compound and cannot be used for the same structural reasons, although it is often used to strengthen steel.
Who invented Graphene?
The discovery of graphene has brought a new revolution in the world, it was discovered in 2004 by Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov, for which they received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010. appeared to them. Which was a layer of carbon, when it was examined, it was found that the bonds of carbon are sticking to each other very hard.
Due to which it is difficult to break it, scientists have considered it the strongest substance in the world. Graphite, which is a layer of graphene, is a thin layer of ordinary carbon with a molecule thickness, it is a part of carbon itself. And in 2d it is found that carbon nanotubes are also made by folding graphene, scientists believe that it is 100 times stronger than steel. It has a flat layer, its weight is much less than others, which makes it stronger when layered.
Potential Uses of Graphene
Graphene can be used as computer chips. Existing chips are based on silicon, but we are now nearing the peak of the capabilities of silicon chips. To increase the capacity of computers, we have to move beyond silicon chips. The electrons in graphene travel 100 to 1000 times faster than in silicon. Therefore, computers based on graphene will require less power. Thanks to the high speed of electrons in graphene, it could lead to smaller computers that would run faster than computers of today.
Graphene can conduct electrons better than other materials at room temperature. Scientists have succeeded in making high-speed transistors using graphene. One such transistor can do the work of three different transistors simultaneously in wireless communication. This will increase the capacity of devices like smartphones. One of the properties of graphene is that it can convert a chemical reaction into an electronic signal.
Scientists have proved that graphene is the strongest material in the world. A graphene membrane as thick as a plastic foil can lift the same weight as a car (about 1500 kg). The unmatched strength of graphene can also be used to make composites. Composite materials formed after adding graphene can be used to produce strong and lightweight products. These include everything from aircraft to tennis rackets.
Graphene is stronger than diamond, a better conductor of electricity and heat than copper, and more flexible than rubber. This can create a screen that you can fold and keep, as well as a battery that will be much more durable than today’s batteries.
One of the great properties of graphene is that it is a good conductor of electricity. This strong, flexible and light-sensitive graphene could help improve the efficiency of solar cells and LEDs (light emitting diodes), as well as help build new generations of flexible touch-screens, photo detectors and ultrafast lasers. It can replace expensive and scarce materials such as platinum and iridium. Some scientists say that graphene can improve data storage capacity.