How Do Antibodies Work | 5 Types Of Antibodies

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How Do Antibodies Work
  1. What Is Antibody
  2. 5 Types Of Antibodies
  3. Structure Of Antibodies 
  4. How Do Antibodies Work 




What Is Antibody 

Antibodies:- Immunoglobulins, also known as Ig for short, are gamma globulin proteins found in the blood or other bodily fluids of vertebrates, and used by the immune system such as bacteria and viruses. It is used to detect and neutralize foreign substances.

These are typically composed of five structural units—each of which has two large and heavy chains and two minor and light chains—which fuse together, for example, monomers with one unit, and two units. together with dimers and with five units to form pentamers. 

Antibodies are made from a type of white blood cell called a plasma cell. Antibody heavy chains and antibodies are also of many different types, which collectively form different isotypes, based on their heavy chains. Five different types of antibodies are known in mammals, which perform different functions, and they help determine the proper immune response to fight different types of foreign matter. 



5 Types Of Antibodies 

  1. Immunoglobulin G (IgG)
  2. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) 
  3. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) 
  4. Immunoglobulin D (IgD) 
  5. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) 



Structure Of Antibodies 

Although the general structure of all antibodies is very similar, the small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable, allowing millions of antibodies or antigens with slightly different tip structures to exist. This region is known as the hypervariable region. Each of these variants can bind to another target called an antigen. 

This vast diversity in antibodies enables the immune system to recognize an equally wide variety of antigen types. The specific part of the antigen recognized by the antibody is called epitope. These epitopes bind to their antibodies by a highly specialized process called induced fit, and which allow antibodies to recognize and bind only to their specific antigen, among the millions of different molecules responsible for body composition. 


How Do Antibodies Work


How Do Antibodies Work 

Activated B cells differentiate either into antibody-producing cells, also known as plasma cells, or long-lasting memory cells that secrete soluble antibodies, so that the immune system remembers the antigen. and can react quickly when they reappear. 

Since antibodies are free in the bloodstream, they are said to be part of the body’s immune system. Flow antibodies are produced by clonal B cells that react specifically to only one antigen. Antibodies contribute to immunity in three ways. They bind with pathogens to prevent them from entering or destroying cells; They stimulate white blood cells and other cells to destroy pathogens by coating the pathogen; And they stimulate other pathogenic reactions, such as the catalytic pathway, to initiate the destruction of pathogens. 

Antibodies that bind to the surface of an antigen, for example a bacterium, attract the first component of the catalytic process to its Fc/Fc region and initiate activation of the “excellent” catalytic system. As a result, the bacterium dies in two ways. In the first method, by the opsonization process, the antibodies and activator molecules mark the microorganism to be eaten by the phagocyte, which are attracted by the catalytic molecules produced by the phagocyte catalytic process. In another approach, some components of the catalytic system form membrane-bound aggressors to assist the antibodies in directly killing the bacteria.


[How Do Antibodies Work | 5 Types Of Antibodies]


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