Hydroelectricity Dam | Benefits Of Hydro Energy
Electricity generated by the kinetic energy of falling or flowing water is called hydroelectricity. In 2005, hydroelectric dams were built around the world generating approximately 816 GWe of electricity, which accounts for about 20% of the world’s total electrical energy. This electricity is pollution free.
Electricity The electricity obtained from water generated from water is called hydroelectricity. Hydroelectricity Dam is very important in the methods of generation of electric power. One-third of the world’s total electric power is received in the form of hydroelectricity.
Thus, the energy available in any form can be used to generate electric power. The energy contained in the falling water in the waterfall has been used to run windmills since ancient times, but the use of this energy for electric power dates back to the twentieth century.
How Does Hydroelectricity Dam Power Work
For hydroelectricity, first of all, such a place has to be selected, where water can be stored in abundance by tying a dam and the power contained in it can be used in power plants through taps or open canals as per the requirement for the generation of electric power.
In order to find a suitable place, both the rainfall and the land have to be studied. The dam is built in such a place where a dam built at the lowest cost can store maximum water. For this, the natural condition of the place should be such that a river passes through the valley through a narrow path between the mountains, so that the upper part of the river can be converted into a big reservoir by making a dam at the narrow place. Another forebay is built over the dam.
From where the water is carried through open canals or taps to the power station. This water drives large turbines located in the power station, which generate electricity in connected generators. The turbine is located at the mouth of a draft tube made of cement concrete. The water moves through the guide vanes to spin the blades of the turbine and thus uses its inherent energy to drive the turbine.
The mechanical energy of the moving turbine is converted into electrical energy and thus the energy contained in the water takes the form of hydroelectricity. After the power thus contained in the water has been used up in the turbine, the water passes through the draft-tube into the tail race, from where it again flows into the river.
Benefits Of Hydroelectricity Dam
- Pollution free and hence environment friendly.
- A renewable source of energy – protects scarce fuel resources
- The cost of production, operation and maintenance is low as compared to other sources of energy.
- Higher efficiency (over 90 percent) than thermal (35 percent) and gas (about 50 percent).
Hydroelectricity Dam Potential
Their position is of utmost importance in hydroelectric projects. Their condition mainly depends on natural and physical causes. A hydroelectric scheme would provide about 10 MW of power if a 150-foot top is available at a flow of 1,000 cubic feet per second.
The reservoir can also be estimated on the basis that 1 foot of water in an area of 1.13 square miles produces only 1 cubic foot per second. Therefore, to have a flow of 1,000 cubic feet per second, the reservoir must contain an average of 10 feet of water over an area of 113 square miles. For any hydroelectric scheme to be practical, it is necessary that there should be maximum head and flow. Schemes with a low head can be practical only if the water flow is sufficient.