What is Solar Flares | Occurrence and effect of Solar Flare

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What is Solar Flares

 

Solar flares were first recorded on September 1, 1859, by two scientists “Richard Hodgson” and “Richard Carrington”. It can be defined as a sudden, rapid and rapid variation in brightness on the surface of the Sun(What is Solar Flares ) In this article we have discussed solar flare, how solar flare is formed, classification of solar flare, occurrence of solar flare, effect of solar flare and how solar flare can be observed. 

 

What Is Solar Flares 

A solar flare is basically a giant explosion on the surface of the Sun that occurs when magnetic field lines from sunspots become entangled and torn. A solar flare is defined as a sudden, intense and rapid variation in brightness. 

A solar flare occurs when the magnetic energy created in the solar atmosphere is suddenly released. The material is heated to several million degrees in a matter of minutes and radiation is emitted in almost the entire electromagnetic spectrum, from radio waves at the longer wavelength end, through optical emission to shorter wavelengths of X-rays and gamma rays. at the end of the wavelength. The amount of energy released is equivalent to the detonation of millions of atomic bombs at the same time! 

Solar flares often occur when the Sun is active in the years around the solar maximum. Several solar flares can occur during this period in just one day! Around the solar minimum, a solar flare can occur less than once per week. Large flares are less frequent than small ones. Some (mostly strong) solar flares can launch huge clouds of solar plasma into space through what we call coronal mass ejections. When a coronal mass ejection hits Earth, it can cause a geomagnetic storm and intense auroral displays. 

What is Solar Flares

Solar flare classification 

Solar flares are classified as A, B, C, M or X according to the peak flux (Watts per square metre, W/m2) of 1 to 8 8ngströms X-rays near Earth. The GOES-15 satellite is in a geostationary orbit over the Pacific Ocean. The table below shows us the different solar flare orbits. 

Class w/m² Between 1&8 Angstroms
A <10⁻⁷
B ≥10⁻⁷ < 10⁻⁶
C ≥10⁻⁶ < 10⁻⁵
M ≥10⁻⁵ < 10⁻⁴
X

≥10⁻⁴

 

  • A: <10⁻⁷ [(Wadata:text/mce-internal,content,%20%26lt%3B10tts per square metre, W/m2) 1 to 8 angstrom X-rays near Earth] This is the lowest intensity solar flare. 
  • B: ≥10⁻⁷ < 10⁻⁶ [(Watts per square meter, W/m2) 1 to 8 angstrom X-rays near Earth] This is the lowest intensity solar flare. 
  • C: ≥10⁻⁶ < 10⁻⁵ [(Watts per square meter, W/m2) 1 to 8 Angstroms near Earth X-rays] This is a slight solar luminosity and has no effect on Earth because coronal mass ejections are slow, are weak and rare.   
  • M: ≥10⁻⁵ < 10⁻⁴ [(in watts per square meter, W/m2) 1 to 8 angstrom X-rays near Earth] This is a moderately large solar flare that causes a solar radiation storm that is experienced Aurora at mid-latitudes. 
  • X: ≥10⁻⁴ [(in Watts per square meter, W/m2) 1 to 8 angstroms X-rays near Earth] This is the largest and strongest solar flare that causes severe (G4) to extreme (G5) Can cause geomagnetic storms on Earth.

 

What causes solar flare 

The Sun is more or less hot plasma with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field through the dynamo process. During the dynamo process, (Occurrence and effect of Solar Flare) rapidly charged particles of the plasma medium in the solar atmosphere interact with each other which causes a sudden burst of energy that accelerates the movement of the particles which creates a coronal mass discharge. 

The interactions are so intense that there is a change of energy from magnetic to kinetic. Solar flares occur in active areas around sunspots. The energy generated during a solar flare can be equated to the energy generated by millions of 100-megaton hydrogen bombs detonating at the same time. 

 

Occurrence and effect of solar flare 

The intensity and incidence of a solar flare varies from time to time. For example, when the Sun is active in a day, there is a solar flare many times. In fact, solar flare events are very frequent, but flare sizes can vary. Small flares are more frequent than large solar flares. This can be seen when X-rays and other radiation affect the planet’s ionosphere causing disruption to long-distance communication services. 

 

Effects of Solar Activity on Earth 

When charged particles from a CME reach regions near Earth, they can accelerate light into the sky, called auroras. When particularly strong, a CME can also interfere with electricity utility grids, which can cause power outages and power outages in the worst-case scenario. Solar flares and CMEs are the most powerful eruptions in our solar system. 

Can a solar flare be seen from Earth? 

A solar flare affects all layers of the solar atmosphere (the photosphere, chromosphere, and corona), meaning that it traverses all wavelengths (an n-ordered array of the components of an emission or wave) of the electromagnetic spectrum. This explosion is filled with energy in the form of radio waves, gamma rays, and many others, which cannot be seen with the naked eye. Therefore it is not possible to observe electromagnetic radiation without special instruments and equipment. 

 

[What is Solar Flares | Occurrence and effect of Solar Flare]

 

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